Table 3

Acheulean Handaxe
Site/Collection Data

Read discussion at bottom of Table
* denotes calculated value

Table 3
COUNTRY SITE/COLLECTION N Max. L Max. W Max. T L/W W/T LN(L*T) SOURCE
1 South Africa Montagu Cave,
Layer 3
14015294*47* 1.61 2.01 8.87 Keller 1973
2 South Africa Montagu Cave,
Layer 5
32517098*52* 1.74 1.87 9.10 Keller 1973
3 Zimbabwe Hwange National Park,
20011 (Dete Police Road)
203 110 71 38 1.55* 1.86* 8.35 Haynes & Klimowicz 2005
4 Zimbabwe Hwange National Park,
50002
16 89 64 33 1.40* 1.92* 8.00 Haynes & Klimowicz 2005
5 Zimbabwe Hwange National Park,
90005
4 161 92 44 1.74* 2.08* 8.88 Haynes & Klimowicz 2005
6 Zambia Kalambo Falls,
Site A Horizon IV
18 171 103* 77* 1.67 2.21 9.49 Roe 2001
7 Zambia Kalambo Falls,
Site A Horizon V/Va
80 165 97* 75* 1.70 2.19 9.43 Roe 2001
8 Zambia Kalambo Falls,
Site A Horizon Vb
34 173 97* 82* 1.78 2.11 9.56 Roe 2001
9 Zambia Kalambo Falls,
Site A Horizon VI
48 170 98* 77* 1.73 2.22 9.47 Roe 2001
10 Zambia Kalambo Falls,
Site B Horizon IV
35 166 106* 90* 1.57 1.84 9.61 Roe 2001
11 Zambia Kalambo Falls,
Site B Horizon V
601 171 96* 82* 1.77 2.07 9.55 Roe 2001
12 Zambia Kalambo Falls,
Site B Horizon VI
35 152 87* 78* 1.75 1.96 9.37 Roe 2001
13 Zambia Kalambo Falls,
Site B Horizon VII
24 167 100* 76* 1.66 2.20 9.45 Roe 2001
14 Zambia Kalambo Falls,
Site B Horizon VIII
39 145 87* 70* 1.68 2.07 9.22 Roe 2001
15 Kenya Olorgesailie, Tr. Tr. M 10 55-64 14590*65* 1.61 2.22 9.15 Isaac 1977
16 Kenya Olorgesailie, Meng 83-96 149 82* 77* 1.82 1.92 9.35 Isaac 1977
17 Kenya Olorgesailie, Mid page 78-86 177 97* 78* 1.82 2.27 9.53 Isaac 1977
18 Kenya Olorgesailie, H/9 AM 14-16 194 107* 78* 1.82 2.50 9.62 Isaac 1977
19 Kenya Olorgesailie, H/9 A 58-68 150 92* 68* 1.64 2.22 9.22 Isaac 1977
20 Kenya Olorgesailie, H/6 A 54-57 183 104*102* 1.75 1.79 9.84 Isaac 1977
21 Kenya Olorgesailie, DE/89 C 15-23 164 92* 93* 1.79 1.75 9.64 Isaac 1977
22 Kenya Olorgesailie, DE/89 B 172-520 172 101* 79* 1.69 2.17 9.52 Isaac 1977
23 Kenya Olorgesailie, DE/89 A 60-79 179 106* 84* 1.69 2.13 9.62 Isaac 1977
24 Kenya Olorgesailie, I 3 66-74 104 70* 59* 1.49 1.75 8.73 Isaac 1977
25 India Hunsgi-II 30 163 97 50 1.68* 1.93* 9.00 Noll & Petraglia 2003
26 India Hunsgi-V 143 143 87 46 1.64* 1.89* 8.80 Noll & Petraglia 2003
27 India Isampur 89 175 107 53 1.64* 2.02* 9.13 Noll & Petraglia 2003
28 India Fatelpur-V 27 124 84 38 1.47* 2.24* 8.45 Noll & Petraglia 2003
29 India Yediyapur-VI 52 127 82 39 1.55* 2.10* 8.51 Noll & Petraglia 2003
30 England Allington Hill 54 115 73* 35* 1.56 2.11 8.30 Roe 1967
31 England Baker's Farm 239 132 79* 46* 1.68 1.72 8.71 Roe 1967
32 England Barton Cliff 110 114 79* 38* 1.44 2.07 8.38 Roe 1967
33 England Bowman's Lodge 30 91 65* 31* 1.39 2.10 7.95 Roe 1967
34 England Broom 172 129 82* 39* 1.57 2.13 8.51 Roe 1967
35 England Caddington 35 97 65* 32* 1.50 2.01 8.05 Roe 1967
36 England Caversham 156 105 69* 37* 1.53 1.87 8.26 Roe 1967
37 England Chadwell St. Mary 99 115 72* 43* 1.59 1.68 8.50 Roe 1967
38 England Corfe Mullen 45 122 80* 34* 1.52 2.39 8.32 Roe 1967
39 England Croxley Green 37 106 69* 36* 1.54 1.93 8.24 Roe 1967
40 England Cuxton 172 130 76* 47* 1.70 1.64 8.71 Roe 1967
41 England Dovercourt 165 98 65* 36* 1.50 1.82 8.16 Roe 1967
42 England Elveden 74 109 68* 34* 1.60 2.01 8.22 Roe 1967
43 England Farmham Terrace A 39 154 84* 48* 1.83 1.74 8.91 Roe 1967
44 England Fordwich 194 144 78* 54* 1.83 1.45 8.96 Roe 1967
45 England Foxhall Road 74 94 62* 29* 1.52 2.11 7.92 Roe 1967
46 England Furze Platt
Ontario, Canada
600 122 71 38 1.74* 1.89* 8.45 Fox 1969
47 England Furze Platt
Oxford, England
473 134 79* 45* 1.70 1.76 8.70 Roe 1967
48 England Gaddesden Row 45 100 69* 35* 1.45 1.97 8.16 Roe 1967
49 England High Lodge 68 113 75* 33* 1.50 2.25 8.24 Roe 1967
50 England Highlands Farm 200 104 70* 36* 1.48 1.94 8.23 Roe 1967
51 England Hitchin 80 117 73* 37* 1.59 2.00 8.37 Roe 1967
52 England Holybourne 19 94 63* 32* 1.49 1.97 8.01 Roe 1967
53 England Hoxne 109 116 73* 35* 1.58 2.07 8.32 Roe 1967
54 England Knowle Farm 461 92 63* 36* 1.46 1.75 8.11 Roe 1967
55 England Oldbury 31 72 54* 22* 1.34 2.45 7.37 Roe 1967
56 England Round Tree 14 107 68* 33* 1.57 2.05 8.17 Roe 1967
57 England Shide (Pan Farm) 44 87 62* 27* 1.40 2.30 7.76 Roe 1967
58 England Stanton Downham 100 116 81* 37* 1.44 2.18 8.36 Roe 1967
59 England Stoke Newington 63 99 61* 37* 1.63 1.64 8.20 Roe 1967
60 England Swanscombe M.G. 164 104 65* 36* 1.59 1.83 8.22 Roe 1967
61 England Swanscombe U.L. 18 115 77* 36* 1.50 2.15 8.32 Roe 1967
62 England Tilehurst 94 110 82* 35* 1.34 2.34 8.26 Roe 1967
63 England Twydall 55 127 75* 42* 1.69 1.77 8.59 Roe 1967
64 England Wallingford 100 108 71* 35* 1.52 2.00 8.25 Roe 1967
65 England Warren Hill--fresh 642 100 70* 30* 1.44 2.31 8.01 Roe 1967
66 England Warren Hill--worn 116 124 75* 45* 1.66 1.66 8.63 Roe 1967
67 England Whitlingham 143 134 80* 42* 1.68 1.92 8.63 Roe 1967
68 England Wolvercote 47 127 71* 39* 1.80 1.79 8.52 Roe 1967
The next three are Homo sapiens sites/collections
 FranceSolutrean13258 73 193.62*4.04*8.43Baker 2004
 USAWest Texas Archaic1363 37 131.75*3.16*6.67Baker 2004
 USAAlaska Paleoindian/Archaic 8 893010 2.97* 3.04*6.77Baker 2004

Handaxes in Africa are made from large flakes. As a result, some of these large flakes were initially too thin for subsequent flake removals and were discarded. The African archaeologists usually identify these discarded large flakes as other types of tools. The largest group of these tools is the African cleaver, which is about as abundant as the handaxe.
The British cleaver is a handaxe. As defined by Roe (1968:54), it is a handaxe with the ratio of L1/L greater than 0.550. L1 is the distance from the butt to the location of maximum width
Based on the data from the African sites considered in this Table, for every cleaver there are 1.1 handaxes. That said, the reader needs to know that I have included the African cleavers and other minor biface tools as handaxe in this Table. This will probably trouble some readers because there is not an equivalent form in archaeological record from England . However, I believe this inclusion is consistent because it is part of the handaxe reduction process. Basically, when the large flakes were removed, there was a culling process. The thicker ones then had additional flakes extracted from them and they became the handaxes. The thinner ones were already exhausted, too thin for further flake removal, and they were discarded; only to be later recognized as the African cleaver. The African cleaver is just a prematurely exhausted handaxe (flake core).