created January 4, 1997

I have chosen to name this document and the Paleoindian end scraper the "Paleo End Scraper". In the literature, this artifact does not have a specific name and is frequently called just an end scraper. Judge referred to it as a transverse scraper ( 1973:91), Wilmsen called it a distal edge tool ( Wilmsen & Roberts 1978:83), and it is a spurred end scraper to Frison ( 1991:128). To me, this artifact is a distinctive end scraper of the Paleoindian Tradition and for this reason I shall refer to it as the Paleo End Scraper or PES for short.

The PES is an extremely important artifact because it is a temporal indicator, like the projectile. Dr. Frison has written that spurred end scrapers (PES) are another possible Paleoindian diagnostic but ... they are not absolutely reliable (1991:128). From my experience, I will say they are the second best indicator of the Paleoindian tradition; second only to the projectile point. Plus, they are more or at least as abundant as the projectiles in campsites. In the 1960's when my father and I were hunting arrowheads, if we found a PES in a lithic scatter before we found a diagnostic projectile point, we knew we were near or in a Paleoindian campsite. We could not distinguish the various Paleoindian groups by the PES, but we knew they were responsible for it. Today, I still can not recognize the various Paleoindian groups by their PES, although I have spent many hours in that effort. The section on the hafting of the PES will offer a reason for this fact.

The following discussions about the PES will include images and diagrams. All the images of scrapers can be enlarged by clicking on them. The other graphics are as large as they get. Hope you enjoy.

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