The Elephant in the Parlor
Another Story of Sandia Cave

Time Line

Tony Baker
May 1, 2005

TIMEFROM THE LITERATUREFROM GREENACRE INTERVIEW
and
BAKER FAMILY DOCUMENTS
1927-1928Boy Scouts "... dug large quantities of the recent fill from the front of the cave..." and, "also dug one hole through the underlying calcium carbonate crust at our present meter-7 line." (Hibben 1941b:3). 
1932 May--Ele Baker (my father) graduates from High School (Baker 1984).
 
Sept.--Ele enrolls at Panhandle A&M in Guymon and Jewel Antoine (my mother) enrolls at University of New Mexico (Baker 1984).
1933 Jan.-May--Ele attends Panhandle A&M and Jewel attends UNM (Baker 1984).
 
Sept.-Dec.--Ele transfers to UNM. Ele and Jewel attend UNM (Baker 1984).
1934 Jan.-May--Ele and Jewel attend UNM (Baker 1984).
 
June-Aug.--Ele works for the University of Oklahoma excavating a cave outside his home in Boise City, OK (letter from Ele Baker to Jewel Antoine, 6/19/1934).

Aug.--Ernst Antevs and E. B. Howard visit Ele and my grandparents in Boise City (letter from Ele Baker to Jewel Antoine, 8/16/1934; letter from Ernst Antevs to Grandfather Baker, 9/12/34).
 
Sept.--Greenacre enrolls as a freshman at Colorado A&M (Colorado State University) (Greenacre 1983:657-658).
 
Sept.-Dec.--Ele and Jewel attend UNM (Baker 1984).
 
Nov.--Ele and Jewel get married and Jewel Antoine becomes Jewel Baker (Baker 1984).
1935
Jan.-May
Feb.--Workman under the supervision of Gordon Vivian discovers the polychrome murals on the Kiva walls at Kuaua (Bliss 1948:219). Greenacre attends Colorado A&M (Greenacre 1983:658).
 
Ele and Jewel attend UNM (Baker 1984).

During the semesters Ele and other anthropology students attend classes three days a week and then work three days a week at Kuaua for field experience (Baker 1988:3).

Late spring Ele and Bliss visit the Quarai Mission CCC excavation and restoration project. This was in anticipation of one of them becoming supervisor for the next year (Baker 1988:2).
1935
June-Aug.
Under the supervision of Wesley Bliss, the murals at Kuaua are removed and transported to University of New Mexico. Ele participates in this effort (Bliss 1948:222).
As a teenager in the 1960s, I remember Ele telling me that he had worked for Bliss on the Kuaua project and that Bliss was the best archaeologist he had ever met.
Aug.--Ele takes the job at Quarai Mission, so he and Jewel drop out of school for one year. They lived at the excavation (Baker 1988:3-4).
1935
Sept.-Dec.
Fall--A student brings Sandia Cave to the attention of the Anthropology Dept (Hibben 1937:260).

Oct.--Ken Davis shows Sandia Cave to Bliss (Bliss 1940b:78).

Ken Davis brings Sandia Cave to our attention (Hibben 1941b:2)

Oct.--Ken Davis shows Davis & Sandia Caves to Hibben and Bliss (Byers 1942:408).
There are additional accounts in the later literature about how the Cave was introduced to the University.

Oct. 18--A mining claim on Davis & Sandia Caves was posted by UNM (Byers 1942:408).

Nov. 7--Permit to excavate Davis and Sandia Caves is applied for by UNM (Byers 1942:408).

Bliss learns his Masters Degree in Anthropology from UNM (Bliss 1948:218-222; Dutten 1963:221).
Greenacre attends Colorado A&M (Greenacre 1983:658).

Ele and Jewel work at Quarai Mission (Baker 1988:3-4).

Greenacre was a close friend of Ken Davis and believes it is most likely that Davis showed Sandia Cave to Bliss (Greenacre 1983:106-111).
1936
Jan.-May
Jan.--Excavation Permit for the work in the two caves is approved. Bliss being the "more experienced digger" was given his choice of caves and he chose to lead the work party in Davis Cave. Sandia Cave defaulted to Hibben (Byers 1942:408; Preston 1995:69)

Feb.--Work begins in both caves under the designated leaders. (Byers 1942:408)

Mar.--Bliss completes work in Davis Cave, which proved to be sterile. (Byers 1942:408)
Greenacre attends Colorado A&M (Greenacre 1983:658)

Ele and Jewel work at Quarai Mission (Baker 1988:3-4).

Mar.--"...Antevs and Dr. Spier are to teach at Albuquerque during the summer session, they will have charge of the field work classes (at Chaco)." (letter from Ele's mother, my grandmother, to Ele, 3/17/36).
1936
June-Aug.
Hibben earns Masters Degree in Zoology from UNM (Adams 2000).

June--Hibben marries Eleanor (Brownie) Pack (Preston 1995:70).
Still working for the UNM, Ele & Jewel move to Jemez Pueblo and continue excavation and restoration work there (letter from Helen Williamson to Ele & Jewel 6/9/36).

Aug.--Bliss reports that Antevs and Spier have been at the Chaco field school. He says that Antevs is coming to Albuquerque in the Fall and "he also wants to see our cave deposit in the Sandias" (letter from Bliss to Ele 8/12/36).
1936
Sept.-Dec.
Oct.--Bliss is put in charge of Sandia Cave (Byers 1942:408). Greenacre transfers to UNM (Greenacre 1983:86).

Ele and Jewel return to school at UNM (Baker 1984).

Bliss' crew, which includes Greenacre, clean out the entrance of Sandia Cave (Greenacre 1983:58,78,1235-1239,1439).

Bliss' crew constructs and bolts a large wooden door to the entrance of the Cave (Greenacre 1983:733-735).
1937
Jan.-May
Jan.--Bliss is in charge of excavations at Sandia Cave. (Byers 1942:408)

"Just before the close of this season's work..." a fireplace was found near the front of the cave. "At the edge of the fireplace was another chipped implement (Hibben 1937:262-263). This is the "Frank Hearth" and the implement is the first Sandia point found in the Cave.

Feb.--Hibben and Bliss submit and sign (in this order) a joint report to Dr. Brand, acting head of the Dept. of Anthropology, who incorporates their data in a report that he submits to the Forest Supervisor. (Byers 1942:408)

April--"Association of Man With Pleistocene Mammals in the Sandia Mountains, New Mexico", by Hibben is published in American Antiquity (1937:260-263). This is the first publication on Sandia Cave.
Greenacre attends UNM and continues to work in the Cave with Bliss during the Spring (Greenacre 1983:86-90,135-136).

Bliss' crew puts in test squares along the cave floor from the entrance to meter 82 (Greenacre 1983:758-828).

Greenacre finds a hearth near the front of the Cave (Greenacre 1983:458-472,1461-1468). However, he does not remember a projectile being found with it (Greenacre 1983:581-582,833-836,1276-1281,1303-1304,1345-1349). This is the "Jim Hearth"

Greenacre could not remember any projectiles being found during his time in the cave. He was even more positive that there were no Folsom projectiles found (Greenacre 1983:581-582,833-836,1165-1169,1177-1185,1276-1281,1303-1304,1345-1349,1471-1476,1818-1824).

Ele and Jewel attend UNM. Ele leaves school at the end of this semester and does not return until 1957 (Baker 1984).
1937
June-Aug.
The Anthropological Field Party of the University of New Mexico departs for Canada. Bliss is in charge (Bliss 1939:365; Byers 1942:409).

Greenacre is excavating at Lindenmeier. (Wilmsen and Roberts 1978:9).
Bliss and a number of students depart for an expedition in Canada (Greenacre 1983:247-271).

Ele is working at Jemez Pueblo. Jewel is attending summer school (UNM) and staying at the Hibben's house (letter from Ele to Jewel, 6/?/37).
1937
Sept.-Dec.
Bliss is in Canada. (Bliss 1939:365; Byers 1942:409) Greenacre attends UNM (Greenacre 1983:86-90,139-147).

Ele and Jewel are working at Chaco (letter from Wayne Kraxberger to Ele, 9/14/37).
1938
Jan.-May
Bliss is in Canada (Bliss 1939:365; Byers 1942:409). Feb.--Ele takes a job with the Panhandle-Plains Historical Society excavating the Antelope Creek Ruins outside of Amarillo, Texas (Baker 1984).

March--Greenacre leaves UNM and takes the job of Supervisor of Field Excavations with the University of Kentucky (Greenacre 1983:147,1527-1534).

Jim Greenacre and Doris Hartwig get married (Greenacre 1983:421).
1938
June-Aug.
Bliss is in Canada (Bliss 1939:365; Byers 1942:409). June--Jewel graduates from UNM and joins Ele in Amarillo (Baker 1984).
1938
Sept.-Dec.
Bliss returns from Canada and submits "A Chronological Problem Presented By Sandia Cave, New Mexico," to American Antiquity for publication (Byers 1942:409). It will be over one year before it is published.

"Dr. Brand put Hibben in charge of the excavations (of Sandia Cave) in the fall of 1938" (Byers 1942:409).
Ele and Jewel are in Amarillo excavating the Antelope Creek Ruins (Baker 1984).
1939
Jan.-Dec.
May 1--Wormington's 1st Edition of Ancient Man in North America is published. Sandia Cave is not mentioned.Bliss makes two visits to the Greenacre's home, which is in Paintsville, Kentucky (Greenacre 1983:421,478-480).

Ele and Jewel are in Amarillo excavating the Antelope Creek Ruins (Baker 1984).
1940
Jan.-Dec.
Hibben receives his Ph.D. from Harvard (Hibben 1940a).

Hibben obtains a generous grant from the American Philosophical Society to complete the Sandia Cave work (1941b:3).

Jan.--American Antiquity publishes Bliss' article, "A Chronological Problem Presented By Sandia Cave, New Mexico," submitted by him in Fall 1938 (1940a:200-201).

April--In "Correspondences" of American Antiquity, Dr. Brand challenges Bliss statements in his January 1940 article (1940:339).

May--Time Magazine publishes "Sandia Man" by Hibben (1940b:67). This is the first report of finding Folsom projectiles in the Cave.

July--In "Correspondences" of American Antiquity, Bliss challenges Dr. Brand statements of April 1940 and reaffirms his position of January 1940 (1940b:77-78).

July--Scientific American publishes "Sandia Man" by Hibben. This is the same stuff as in the Time Magazine of May 1940 (1940c:14-15).
Greenacre is excavating mounds in Kentucky (Greenacre 1983:1060-1062).

Ele and Jewel are in Amarillo excavating the Antelope Creek Ruins (Baker 1984).
1941
Jan.-Dec.
Jan--In "Correspondence" of American Antiquity, Hibben calls Bliss a "student" and says he had no knowledge or authority to have written what he did in the January and July 1940 issues of American Antiquity (Hibben 1941a:266).

Oct.--Evidences of Early Occupation in Sandia Cave, New Mexico, and Other Sites in the Sandia-Manzano Region by Hibben is published by the Smithsonian Institution. This is the Site Report and Monograph for Sandia Cave.
Greenacre is doing salvage archaeology on the Tennessee River in preparation for the Kentucky dam. (Greenacre 1983:1540,1629)

Ele and Jewel are in Amarillo excavating the Antelope Creek Ruins (Baker 1984).

June--Ele and Jewel loose their Amarillo job due to WPA funding drying up. They obtained a two-month grant for the University of Pennsylvania to survey northeastern New Mexico for Paleoindian (Baker 1984).

Sept.--Ele and Jewel return to Albuquerque and take non-archaeological jobs (Baker 1984).
1942
Jan.-Dec.
"Concerning Sandia Cave" by Douglas Byers is published in American Antiquity (1942:408-409). Byers was then the editor of American Antiquity. WPA funding dries up and Greenacre looses his job with the University of Kentucky. In the Fall, he takes a job with the Army Map Service (Greenacre 1983:1627).

Ele and Jewel reside in Albuquerque working at non-archaeological jobs (Baker 1984).
1943
Jan.-Dec.
Jan--"The Finley Site: Discovery of Yuma Points, in Situ, near Eden, Wyoming" by E. B. Howard is published in American Antiquity (1943:224-234). Howard lists all the known Folsom Sites at that time except Sandia Cave, which is conspicuously absent. Greenacre is working for the Army Map Service in Kentucky (Greenacre 1983:1627-1629).

Ele enlists in the Army when he learns that he soon would be drafted based on his age (Baker 1984).
1944
Jan.-Dec.
Wormington's 2nd Edition of Ancient Man in North America is published. Two-plus pages are dedicated to Sandia Cave. All of it extracted from the 1941 Monograph. Greenacre is working for the Army Map Service (Greenacre 1983:1627-1643).

Ele is in the Army and is stationed in the States (Baker 1984).

Oct.--Tony Baker is born.


References

Adams, Bob
2002  Frank C. Hibben, 1910-2002. http://www.adamsguns.com/hibben.htm, Albuquerque.
 
Baker, Ele
1984  Oral History. Recorded by Teddy Dressel. Recording maintained by Tony Baker, Denver.
 
1988  Interview Concerning Quarai Excavation and Restoration. Transcribed in 1988 by Cheryl Foote. Transcription maintained by Tony Baker, Denver.
 
Bliss, Wesley
1939  Early Man in Western and Northwestern Canada. Science, 89:365-366.
 
1940a  A Chronological Problem Presented by Sandia Cave, New Mexico. American Antiquity, 5(3):200-201.
 
1940b  Sandia Cave. Correspondence in American Antiquity, 6(1):77-78.
 
1948  Preservation of the Kuaua Mural Paintings. American Antiquity, 13(3):218-223.
 
Brand, Donald
1940  Regarding Sandia Cave. Correspondence in American Antiquity, 5(4):339.
 
Byers, Douglas
1942  Concerning Sandia Cave. American Antiquity, 7(4):408-409.
 
Dutten, Bertha
1963  Sun Father's Way. The University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
 
Greenacre, Jim and Doris
1983  Oral History with Focus on Sandia Cave. Transcribed in 2005 by Tony Baker. http://www.ele.net/Sandia_Cave/Greenacre.htm, Denver.
 
Haynes, Jr., Vance and George Agogino
1986  Geochronology of Sandia Cave. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology No. 32.
 
Hibben, Frank
1937  Association of Man with Pleistocene Mammals in the Sandia Mountains, New Mexico. American Antiquity, 2(4):260-263.
 
1940a  The Gallina Culture of North Central New Mexico. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University. (listed at http://wwwlib.umi.com/dxweb, but unavailable.)
 
1940b  Sandia Man. Time Magazine, 35(19):67.
 
1940c  Sandia Man. Scientific American, 163:14-15.
 
1941a  Sandia Cave. Correspondence in American Antiquity, 6(3):266.
 
1941b   Evidences of Early Occupation in Sandia Cave, New Mexico, and Other Sites in the Sandia-Manzano Region. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 99, No. 23.
 
Howard, Edgar
1943  The Finley Site: Discovery of Yuma Points in Situ, near Eden, Wyoming. American Antiquity, 8(3):224-234.
 
Preston, Douglas
1995  The Mystery of Sandia Cave. New Yorker, 71(16):66-83.
 
Wilmsen, Edwin and Frank Roberts, Jr.
1978  Lindenmeier, 1934-1974. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology No. 24.
 
Wormington, Marie.
1939  Ancient Man in North America. Colorado Museum of Natural History, Denver.
 
1944  Ancient Man in North America, 2nd edition. Colorado Museum of Natural History, Denver.
 
1949  Ancient Man in North America, 3rd edition. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver.